Fig.1 LEA-60 Accelerator

The basic model of LEA-60 (Fig. 1) was designed as injector of electron beam in a compact synchrotron radiation source [1]. Two similar accelerators of this series were constructed. The main feature of LEA-60 is the use of RF gun with a-magnet for beam formation and acceleration section with a considerable (for that time) energy gain (20 MeV/m). It allowed to produce a beam with low emittance and high brightness with particle energies up to 60 MeV and energy spread less than 2%.

The linear accelerator LIC (Laser Injector Complex, Fig. 2) was developed for experimental research in the field of charged particle dynamics, generation of short-wave radiation and wake fields excitation in plasma [2], [3]. The basic components of the accelerator are a universal RF gun [4] and accelerating structure with the period which is twice as long as of the structure with 2p/3 operating mode [5]. The RF gun can be used in both the thermionic and photoemission modes. The significant features of the accelerating structure are possibility of considerable pulse charges acceleration (limit charge is 800 nC at microwave frequency power Р=25 MW) and beam RF focusing [6]. The facility was used for studying the beam focusing in plasma by wake fields, generation of Smith–Purcell millimetre radiation and formation of a beam in RF guns of new types [7].

Fig.2 LIC Linear Accelerator

Fig.3 KUT Accelerator

KUT is the first technological complex which was completely developed and constructed in “Accelerator” S&R Establishment [8]. It was planned that this complex would be the basis for creation of sterilization production line at the industrial enterprises. The pilot variant of the complex has been operated in “Accelerator” S&R Establishment since September, 1993. KUT is equipped with the linear electron accelerator with scanning and beam output devices, cooling and control systems. The accelerator consists of an accelerating section and injector which in turn consists of a diode electron gun, klystron type bunching device and accelerating cavity. The scanning system and beam output device consist of a special magnetic system and foil with air cooling. KUT generates an electron beam with particle energy of 8-10 MeV and average beam power up to 10 kW that allows realizing radiation technologies, including sterilization of medical products.

KUT-20 (KUT-30) is a complex for realization of radiation technologies (Fig. 4), mostly for production of medical radioisotopes [9]. The facility is based on a powerful linear electron accelerator. The accelerator was put into operation in 2002. It consisted of two accelerating sections with variable geometry and improved injector system which had been used at KUT accelerator. Wave phase speed in accelerating structures equals to the speed of light. Section length is 1.23 m, operating wave mode is 2p/3.

Fig.4 KUT-30 Accelerator

The beam is extracted through foils with water cooling. All accelerator systems are controlled by a computer system. The microwave system consisted of two powerful amplifying klystrons with modulators and waveguide system. The klystron of the first section operate in self oscillating mode. A part of this klystron output power is used for power supply of the bunching system and accelerating cavity, and also for excitation of the klystron of the second section. KUT-20 generated an electron beam with particle energy of 20-30 MeV and average power up to 15 kW.

In 2007 KUT-20 was modernized (KUT-30) by installation of the third accelerating section and use of the third klystron. Thus, an electron beam energy increased up to 30-45 MeV, and average power increased up to 20 kW.

The EPOS accelerator was constructed in 1996 [10]. An electron beam with particle energy of 20-30 MeV and average power up to 15 kW is generated at the linac exit.

The LEA-40 accelerator was created for both researches of acceleration physics of intense electron beams and studying the interaction of accelerated particles with matter [11] (Fig. 5). For the purpose of increase of electron energy up to 100 MeV this accelerator was significantly modernized [12]. At present the nuclear-physical complex operates on its basis for conducting experiments in the field of nuclear physics and validation of radiation technologies [13].

The LEA-60M accelerator which will be used as an injector of the “NESTOR” storage ring has been constructed and is in commissioning now[14] (Fig. 6).

Fig.5 LEA-40 Accelerator

Fig.6 LEA-60M Accelerator

Fig.7 LEA-10 Accelerator

The one-section LEA-10 accelerator was put into operation in 1987 [15], [16] (Fig. 7). It was operated with one KIU-53 klystron until the middle of 1993. In 1993 the accelerator was modernized in order to increase the average power by use of two klystrons in the scheme of adding of power from two sources.

Since 1994 the LEA-10 accelerator has been used for fundamental and applied researches in the field of radiation damages and technologies. Simulation experiments on problems of molten salt nuclear reactors [17] were one of the most important researches which have been recently carried out with use of this accelerator.

The list of linear resonance electron accelerators which have been developed and created in NSC KIPT together with other enterprises of the USSR before 1991 is represented in Table 1.

Table 1

The list of linear resonance electron accelerators which have been developed and created in “Accelerator” Science and Research Establishment since 1991 is represented in Table 2.

Table 2.

[1]. Yu.I. Akchurin, V.I. Beloglazov, E.Z. Biller et al. The accelerator LEA-60 as injector of the technological source of synchrotron radiation // Problems of Atomic Science and Technology - 1989, N5(5), p.3-10.

[2]. N.I. Aizatsky, A.N. Dovbnya, V.A. Kushnir, V.V. Mitrochenko et al. High-current resonance electron accelerator for studying collective acceleration methods // Plasma physics - 1994, v.20, N7,8, p.671-673.

[3]. N.I. Ayzatsky, E.Z. Biller, A.N. Dovbnya et al. Operating performances and current status of the Laser Injector Complex Facility (LIC) // Proc. of the 1996 EPAC - 1996, v.1, p.795-797.

[4]. N.I. Aizatsky, E.Z. Biller, A.N. Dovbnya et al. Two-cell RF gun for a high-brightness linac // Proc. of the 1996 EPAC - 1996, v.2, p.1553-1555.

[5]. N.I. Aizatsky, E.Z. Biller, A.N. Dovbnya, V.A. Kushnir, V.V. Mitrochenko. Development of accelerating sections for linear electron accelerators // Problems of Atomic Science and Technology - 1999, N1, p.80-83.

[6]. N.I. Aizatsky, V.A. Kushnir, V.V. Mitrochenko, A.N. Opanasenko. Electron beam focusing by non-synchronous spatial harmonic field in travelling-wave accelerating structure // Proc. of Kharkov National University, N522, Physics Series Nuclei, Particles, Fields” - 2001, edit.2/14, p.60-64.

[7]. I.V. Khodak, V.A. Kushnir, V.V. Mitrochenko, D.L. Stepin. Thermionic RF gun with high-temperature metallic cathode // // Problems of Atomic Science and Technology - 2001, N5(39), p.103-105.

[8]. N.I. Aizatsky, A.N. Dovbnya, Yu.I. Akchurin, V.I. Beloglazov et al. KUT-Industrial Technological Accelerator // Proc. of the 14th PAC - 1994, v.4, p.259-263.

[9]. K.I. Antipov, N.I. Aizatsky, Yu.I. Akchurin et al. High-Power Electron Linac for Irradiation Applications // Proc. of the 2001 PAC - 2002, p.2805-2807.

[10]. Yu.D. Tur. Linear Electron Accelerator for Isotopes Production // Proc. of the 2000 EPAC - 2000, p.2560-2562.

[11]. V.M. Grizhko, I.A. Grishaev, G.L. Fursov et al. Linear accelerator to average current of 1 mA // Nuclear Engineering – 1979, v.46, B.5, p.336-340.

[12]. A.N. Dovbnya, N.I. Aizatsky, V.N. Boriskin, I.V. Khodak et al. Beam parameters of an S-band electron linac with beam energy of 30…100 MeV // Problems of Atomic Science and Technology - 2006, N2, p.11-13.

[13] N.I. Aizatsky, V.I. Beloglazov, V.P. Bozhko et al. Nuclear-physical complex on the basis of linear electron accelerator with energies up to 100 MeV // Problems of Atomic Science and Technology - 2010, N2, p.18-22.

[14] N.I. Aizatsky, V.A. Kushnir, V.V. Mitrochenko, S.A. Perezhogin. The electron injector for linac of the “NESTOR” storage ring // Problems of Atomic Science and Technology - 2006, N2, p.94-96.

[15]. V.I. Beloglazov et al. Industrial-materials science accelerator complex to energies up to 10 MeV // Problems of Atomic Science and Technology - 1986, N1(36), p.89-91.

[16]. V.I. Beloglazov, A.I. Zykov, E.S. Zlunitsyn et al. An electron linac producing beam power up to 15 kW // Proc. of the 1996 EPAC - 1996, Vol.1, p.798-800.

[17]. A.N. Dovbnya, A.I. Zykov, E.S. Zlunitsyn, A.V. Torgovkin, B.I. Shramenko. Radiation field creation at the electron linac LEA-10 for long-term tests of structural materials under molten salt reactor conditions // Problems of Atomic Science and Technology - 2006, N2, (46), p.187-199.